Pelagius rejected the doctrine of original sin; he taught that children are born innocent of the sin of Adam. Baptism, accordingly, ceased to be interpreted as a regenerative sacrament. Pelagius challenged the very function of the church, claiming that the law as well as the gospel can lead one to heaven and that pagans had been able to enter heaven by virtue of their moral actions before the coming of Christ.
The rugged individualism of the Celtic monk, his conviction that each person is free to choose between good and evil. And his insistence that faith must be practical as well as spiritual remain hallmarks of Christians in Britain. An the British imagination has remained rooted in nature, witnessed by the pastoral poetry and landscape panting in which Britain excels, indeed that peculiar British obsession with gardening is Celtic in origin.
>>562687 >few Britons were ever "romanised", the Roman legacy was played up by British historians debatable. It's true that 'Romanisation' in Britain was never complete, especially outside the south and east, but to say that any and all facets of Roman life went in 410AD is wrong. The civitates continued to function for much of the 5th century and were in contact with the rest of the (ex) Roman world. Recent archaeological survey of Roman towns shows that contrary to popular belief there was habitation, previously 'dark earth' layers were previously considered to be evidence of abandonment but the micromorphology of said dark earth indicates otherwise.
I'm personally of the opinion that the Saxon 'invasion' was, as suggested by Gildas, the Romano-British authorities inviting them over as foederati (though it is certainly possible that Germanic warriors served as foederati in Britain before 410 and simply stayed), and over the course of the next 150-200 years they replaced the British elite through a mix of conquest and acculturation
There's a lasting legacy of the Romans all over Europe, not just in Britain. Britain was effected much less by the Romans than Europe. They were still effectively governed by the Holy Roman Empire when it came to religious matter, which seeped into all areas of their lives, just like most of Europe was.
>>562676 To summarise. We only have a few useful sources for the period, e.g. Gildas, Bede and Nennius who explicitly says "I have made a heap of all I have found", so that says a lot about its quality.
>late 4th century AD >Roman garrison of the island taken away by various usurpers and generals >410, the Britons throw out the remaining Roman magistrates since they are proving useless in protecting them from the Picts and Saxons >cue several decades of independent Briton rule which we know very, very little about >one major faction of Britons is led by a figure ostensibly called Vortigern which is in favour of fighting the Picts using foederati in the old Roman style (i.e. recruiting foreign mercs to fight other foreigners). >Another called Ambrosius Aurelianus detests the idea. >Vortigern invites in a group of Jutes led by Hengist and Horsa and gives them land in Kent >foreigners get angry when their food and payments stop after the enemy are defeated and their contracts expired >rampage throughout Kent >various wars to put them down >the Saxons (catch all term for the various tribes, Frisians, Jutes, Saxons, Angles etc.) and Britons come together for a conference >the Saxons slaughter the British leaders coining the term "the night of the Long Knives" (from which the word Saxon or Seax comes from". >lands throughout south east Britain are conquered such as East Anglia, Deira, Lindsey and Ceint >decades later (the initial landing was in the 440s/450s though there had been many Germanics in Britain before the Romans had left) by about the year 490 a figure leads a fight back against the Saxons who have taken much of lowland England up to the Severn (SE of where it says Glywysing on the map) >the figure (allegedly the historical King Arthur or Artorius) supposedly crushes the Saxons at a place called Mons Badonicus (or Badon Hill) which is supposedly near Aquae Sulis this led to peace for a generation as the Saxons nursed their wounds (as Gildas says in the 540s)
>>563413 >Life carried the way it did before the Romans arrived minus the power vaccum caused by their exit which left the land ripe for the angles and saxons to conquer only cornwall and wales, who had resisted most strongly to roman occupation, retained their original briton populations and could raise a levy to fend off the invaders
>not long after Gildas was writing the Saxon onslaught begins in earnest (though we shouldn't think of it as a united Germanic front against a united Celtic front, it was just lots of petty kingdoms or quasi-Roman style cities) >the kingdoms of the "Old North" (Hen Ogledd) which were supposedly divided up amongst the sons of a figure called Coel Hen who survives in folk song as Old King Cole (allegedly a Roman style general with his headquarters at York/Eboracum later Ebrauc) almost defeated the Saxon kingdoms in the north and pushed them onto a final stand on Lindisfarne, but one of the Britons got power mad and betrayed the others >by the final years of the 6th century the Roman cities of Corinium, Aquae Sulis etc. were conquered and massive migrations of Germanics had penetrated into the interior and most of the region was conquered aside from what is now the British kingdoms of the Welsh peninsula, Dumnonia, Strathclyde and some other northern ones >things get even darker at this point so all we have are genealogies and some heroic poems by Welsh bards
>>564044 Most of that is memespeak. Saxon dominance of Britain was never assured at all, it was only infighting that messed things up for the Britons as it was with the Romans themselves.
Plus Britons didn't just vanish off the face of the planet, they were just culturally assimilated. The modern population of England is ethnically identical to that of Wales, Scotland and Ireland I believe.
>>564056 There's a poem centuries later that says something to that effect.
>>564056 >Wondrous is this foundation – the fates have broken and shattered this city; the work of giants crumbles. >The roofs are ruined, the towers toppled, frost in the mortar has broken the gate, torn and worn and shorn by the storm, eaten through with age. >The earth’s grasp holds the builders, rotten, forgotten, the hard grip of the ground, until a hundred generations of men are gone. >This wall, rust-stained and covered with moss, has seen one kingdom after another, stood in the storm, steep and tall, then tumbled. >Bright were the buildings, with many bath-houses, high noble gables and a great noise of armies, many a meadhall filled with men’s joys, until mighty fate made an end to all that. >The slain fell on all sides, plague-days came, and death destroyed all the brave swordsmen; the seats of their idols became empty wasteland,the city crumbled, its re-builders collapsed beside their shrines. So now these courts are empty,and the rich vaults of the vermilion roofs shed their tiles. The ruins toppled to the ground, broken into rubble, where once many a man glad-minded, gold-bright, bedecked in splendor, proud, full of wine, shone in his war-gear, gazed on treasure, on silver, on sparkling gems, on wealth, on possessions, on the precious stone, on this bright capital of a broad kingdom.
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