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I am a Mycologist and mushroom farmer. AMA.

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I am a Mycologist and mushroom farmer. AMA.
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>>2377388
Where abouts are you from and pick around?

And just curious, is there a way to grow mushrooms like an everyday plant?
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>>2377416
I live in Oregon, and I pick all over the place. I do less foraging and a lot more growing.

Yes, growing them like an everyday plant is what I do. They are obviously not plants, and the whole "plant a seed and water it" concept doesn't carry over in the slightest. Want details?
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>>2377388
Is there a simple way to renew a block of lion's mane grown indoors? Like providing the mycelium more food/space?
Or does it just stop colonizing after fruiting and you have to re-inoculate something new every few months?
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>>2377425
Yeah, I'm curious! How did you grow the thing in your OP pic for starters?
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>>2377426
Yes, it is called cloning. There are a number of ways you could do it. Easiest with best results is to go and order some hardwood fuel pellets for stoves/barbecues on amazon (has to be hardwood) and use those as a new substrate.
Coffee grounds can work but risk contamination, locally sourced sawdust will work but has to be hardwood and free of contamination (no glues, or oil). I have used paper towels and waste newspaper in the past but you don't get very good yields.
You basically want to boil or bake the substrate (bake coffee grounds, boil the other ones) drain it to the right moisture content, and crush up the block and mix it in. Then, place it in a plastic bag or large plastic tub with a lid. If you do it in a bag, make sure it has a couple of holes for ventilation. Store it in a clean cupboard or other area with close to no airflow. Once it has colonized completely (everything is white) poke bigger holes in the bag and place it in an area with open air, and high humidity. Mist the open holes until fruit forms. With the species lions mane (Hericium) you may have issues keeping humidity high, so it could be worthwhile using a humidifier.
Other species are easier than lions mane, mainly Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus) species.

>>2377428
Yep, I grew the oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) indoors using flax seed meal and paper towels.
So, for someone with no supplies or experience, there are a few options for mushroom growing. The craft is divided up into outdoor growing and indoor growing. Outdoor growing is very low-maintenance, and extremely low cost. (25 bucks at most). The tradeoff is time. Outdoor growing is at the beck and call of the seasons, and can take 4 months at minimum, two-ish years at most. Indoor growing can take as little as three weeks from start to finish.
I focus on indoor growing, and I am going to give you an indoor growing tutorial because summer is a bad time for outdoor growing.
These SRA were grown outdoors.
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>>2377438
Thanks for the info. I've been looking for info on growing Hericium, but nothing had really mentioned what to do with it after it stops flushing.
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>>2377428
>>2377438
Word limit.
First thing you need is inoculant. This is a growing, living sample of the mycelium from the mushroom you want to grow. For your scenario, you are going to want to purchase what is called grain spawn. It is rye grains with mycelium in the process of eating them. They are fully encased in mycelium, and are called "fully colonized" because there is no grain left untouched. You can order online from a bunch of places, I would go with the website fungi.com, from the company Fungi Perfecti, they have a really great selection of species for all climates and experience.

Now that you have your grain inoculant, you need to decide on a substrate. Mushrooms are much closer to animals than they are plants, and have similar nutrient requirements of carbs and proteins. The grain supplies the protein, so the hard part is already done for you. Now you need to decide on carbon. The best is hardwood fuel pellets for stoves. (HWFP). They must be hardwood. Read through what I said to the other anon, about carbon choices. If you are using grain spawn you do not want to use coffee grounds, they will almost definitely contaminate (fall prey to wild fungi). Your mushroom needs a substrate ratio higher in carbon than in nitrogen. The grain should be about 15% by weight of your final substrate. Gather up your carbon, boil it, drain it, and load half of it into a large ziploc bag(s). Put a layer of grain spawn in, and then fill the rest of it up with your carbon. (the grain spawn should be in a layer like frosting inside a cake). Get a couple of cotton balls and close the bag around them (slide closing mechanism is better). This is a makeshift air filter to let gas exchange so your mycelium can breathe.
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>>2377450
Set the bag in a dark, cool place to colonize. You should see white mycelium spread out from the grains into the substrate. Once the whole bag has turned white, slice small slits in the side and move it into a humid room with regular lighting. Mist the slits until you see tiny mushrooms form (pic related) and continue to mist until they have reached your desired harvesting size. It usually takes two days for them to appear and reach maturity.
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>>2377453
Thank you OP this was fun to read! How did you learn to do this? is there any literature you recommend reading?

Does this method work universally for fungi?
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This is one of the most interesting threads I've read. Thank you for sharing, I will continue to lurk.
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My latest project has been focused on the behavior of Morels (Morchella species, specifically Morchella importuna). I have been starving them, burning them with light, and trying to get them to have sex with their siblings. It is going swimmingly.

>>2377488
No, the method does not work universally. Many have different temps, require different substrates, and need different management altogether. The concepts of feeding and nutrition carry over though. This method will work for a lot of the commonly cultivated "woodlovers" though. Oysters, Lions mane, Nameko, Shiitake (with a little extra manipulation), SRA, and a bunch of others.
I learned mushroom cultivation by doing a ton of online research, joining mushroom growing groups, and reading a variety of books. Beginner books related to mushroom growing include these two by Paul Stamets: "Mycelium Running" and "Growing Gourmet and Medicinal Mushrooms" those will cover the bases.
The mycology is all learned through classes, online journals, scholarly articles, and books.

>>2377610
Glad you are entertained!
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>>2377388
>ama
When you wipe your ass, do you lean to one side, or stand up?
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>>2378270
I lean to one side without getting up. Keeps the cheeks spread, standing up smears it everywhere and doubles the amount of toilet paper necessary.
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If I wanted to propagate wild yeasts to use to ferment sour beers, what would be the best way to go about encouraging their growth without introducing a cocktail of miscellaneous bullshit into my beer?
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>>2377388
Is it viable to grow truffles in an indoor facility?
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>>2378345
Truffles are ectomycorrhizal, so probably not.
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>>2378345
>>2378351
No, not indoors. You can grow their mycelium indoors though, which contains many of the same flavor compounds. The mycelium can then be used as truffle flavored powder, or used for extracts.
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Post more pics of indoor mushroom growing. I never knew that it could be done like that. What happens after it makes the mushrooms?
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>>2377388
What's your favorite mushroom to grow?
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>>2377388
What defines a fungus?
e.g. Why chytrids are considered fungi and nucleariids are not?
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>>2378453
Pleurotus species, mainly ostreatus and pulmonarius. (spring and fall oyster mushrooms)
They are fast, they outcompete contamination, they eat a humongous variety of substrates with good bioconversion. And, they taste great fried up in butter.

>>2378450
Indoor growing is superior IMO because it lets you control a larger number of species, you have complete control over environmental conditions and substrate, and it is insanely fast when compared to outdoor growing. Here is a cool photo of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi).
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>>2378463
I believe it is up to phylogeny based on genetic evidence at this point. For a long time though it was extremely arbitrary, and we had a really hard time placing things. I think the main reason for originally including chytrids was that they were saprobes and parasites, and produced spores. Then, later on, genetic evidence found the connections to have been well founded. Chytrids, mushrooms, and nucleariids all share a common ancestor though, and are pretty close on the phylogenetic tree.
>https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holomycota
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>>2378477
Cool, what would you say is the most visually appealing fungus. Have you ever grow a Fly Amanita for non drug use? Is it even legal to grow them?
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>>2378485
Not OP, but parrot shrooms are incredibly photogenic.
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>>2378485
And the psychedelic compound in amanita muscaria is ibotenic acid, which is a completely different compound than psilocybin. So yes, it is completely legal to have fly agarics, though they're mycorrhizal, so you're not going to be able to grow them indoors.
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>>2378485
Don't eat fly agarics. You'll end up with PLS syndrome, which isn't fun.
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>>2378493
Wasn't planning on it. They were just one of the more visually striking mushrooms I could think of.
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>>2378497
Fair enough. If you want pretty mushrooms though, here's one that is edible.
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Hell, here's a photo of C. zollingeri as well. Coral mushrooms are gorgeous.
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Ok whoever OP is, what would you choose if you could grow a more exotic fungus. Entoloma Hochstetteri seem really cool.
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>>2378493
I thouht amanitas were safe to eat if you roasted/dried the ibotenic acid out of them. Is that not true?
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>>2378485
I would say Xerocomellus zelleri. Zellers' bolete. I find them in aged hemlock forests near creeks. A cool feature: they stain bright blue instantly upon being scratched or cut.
You cannot grow Fly Agarics (Amanita muscaria), they are mycorrhizal and require a tree host. Like truffles, you can cultivate the mycelium and produce the active chemicals muscimol and ibotenic acid, but you cannot cultivate the mushrooms themselves.
Possession, consumption, and cultivation are all completely legal for A. muscaria. Noone really wants to try it twice, and most try it improperly prepared so they end up getting pretty sick. It isn't a pleasant experience even when done correctly.

>>2378507
It would be a good species. In the past I have considered doing cultures of small colorful mycenas and such in pretty bottles, and sending them out as "fungal bouquets." that will grow right on your countertop.
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>>2378513
A. muscaria contains Ibotenic acid and Muscimol, Ibotenic acid being a neurotoxin and the component responsible for the majority of the negative effects. Muscimol is the mostly psychoactive component that you are after.
Heating or drying decarboxylates the Ibotenic acid into Muscimol, making it less toxic and more psychoactive.
Muscimol on its own is pretty gnarly stuff. There are a decent set of side effects, and most people who partake find it very unpleasant. It is far removed from a Psilocybin trip, and is more like being black out drunk and hearing things that aren't there. The amount of muscimol in each specimen is completely different by region and specimen, some will contain none, some will contain almost lethal doses. Another risk factor.
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>>2378521
Oh, here is a photo of Zellers'
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>>2378513
Amanitas in general? Hell no. Amanitin and phalloidin are very thermostable, have high boiling points, and will kill you dead if you fry up a destroying angel or deathcap.
If you meant muscaria specifically, then I don't know. If you somehow managed to get rid of the muscarine and muscimol, then I suppose so. There's no amatoxins or phallotoxins in a muscaria. If you learn how to do a meixner test, that can be useful to help confirm whether those toxins are present (though I feel compelled to point out that a negative result by no means indicates that the mushroom is safe to eat, there's plenty of other toxins unrelated to cyclic peptides that will still kill you. Orellanine, for example.)

Pic related is a neat demonstration of the staining phenomenon that some boletes exhibit that the other mycologist was on about.
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>>2378533
Oh, that staining effect is cool.
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>>2378558
Yeah, staining is actually pretty cool, and pretty useful for identifying some mushrooms, even.
Then there's people who like to draw on Ganodermas. Showoffs.
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>>2378566
For what purpose?
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>>2377388
Can I use the indoor method you described here to grow Agaricus bisporus?
They naturally grow around my yard and I've wondering if I can easily cultivate them somehow
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>>2378616
Well, I am doubtful that you have Agaricus bisporus in your yard for one. There are a lot of lookalikes, and to the untrained eye most Agaricus look pretty much the same.
But no, you cannot grow A. bisporus the way I described. Agaricus bisporus has to be grown on composted horse manure, and has to have a special casing layer before it will fruit. This is usually done in trays inside temperature/humidity controlled clean rooms, as they are known to be very susceptible to contamination. They are much harder than most other mushrooms.
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>>2378616
Yes. A. bisporus are saprobes, so they would probably work well with OP's method. They're grown commercially in a similar fashion.

I'm gonna take this opportunity to explain some extremely simplified mushroom ecology, because knowing it helps to understand why you can or can't grow certain mushrooms indoors.

A mushroom will typically grow in one of three ways. The mushroom may be parasitic, in which it obtains its nutrients from a living host at its expense.
A mushroom may be saprotrophic, where it obtains its nutrients from nonliving substrate (e.g.: decaying logs, mulch, etc.).
Note that there are some mushrooms that can be either saprobic or parasitic, such as Hericium erinaceus.

Finally, some mushrooms will only grow when they are able to form symbiotic relationships with trees to facilitate nutrient exchange. A mushroom growing like this is said to be mycorrhizal. The species of tree needed to form these mycorrhizal relationships are quite specific to the mushroom, and in most cases the mushroom will not grow at all in the absence of the tree. This is the main reason why you can't artificially cultivate certain mushrooms, like chanterelles.
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Reading the post above, yeah, disregard the first line of my post. I don't grow mushrooms for myself, so my knowledge on that is kinda shit. Open mouth, insert foot... Oh well.
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>>2378664
if they aren't they look the same and they taste the same, my grandpa and I have eaten quite a few of them so far
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>>2378676
upon further review its likely they're Agaricus campestris
still edible and still tasty
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>>2378677
Yeah, that is most likely. I love that species, they grow in fields in my town in pretty large numbers each fall. Apparently they are also hard to cultivate. I guess the spores need to be exposed to gasses produced by mycelium that is already established, so basically the spores cannot germinate anywhere but around where it has already been growing.
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>>2378679
I'll have to keep and eye out and mark the locations next time
But I probably won't see any until we get another good thunderstorm. I haven't quite nailed down what causes them to grow, but occasionally days after we had rain and then sun, they'll be a dozen or so that just popped out of the ground overnight
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Bacteria > Fungi

REEEEEE, fungi spores stop contaminating my lab
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You sound like a fun guy.
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>>2378815
Bacteria stop contaminating my tissue cultures...
No but seriously, fungi are definitely better.
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Rate my harvest
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>>2379580
those look tasty as fuck
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>>2379580
I've never seen such orange mushrooms before
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>>2379616
they grow on your mom's pussaaaayyyyyyyy
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>>2377388
Do you sell mushroom drugs?
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>>2379580
Those look fantastic anon. I'm jealous.
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Mushrooms scare me because most of them are poisonous, live in conditions that are harmful to humans and have very different modes of living.
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>>2379882
It's not hard to learn how to identify mushrooms, anon. There's lots of good beginner mushrooms for first time foragers. Find a local mushroom club.
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>>2377388
>I'm a misogynist
>>>/trash/
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>>2379747
mushrooms don't do drugs
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>>2379885
... What?
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>>2379899
please do not be of feeding the shitposters
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>>2377388

y no ps. cubensis
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I live in the netherlands, so many magic mushroom species are legal here.
Is there one you recommend, where i would have to only buy a growing set from one of the smartshops once and could then go on to cultivate generations from the original mushrooms? I don't even necessarily want to consume them, i just like the idea of having some around.
Also which species is the best for longterm storage since i don't really want to consume them?
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>>2379580
Nice! Not much is in season here right now.

>>2379882
This is a common misconception, and the result of widespread mycophobia. Most mushrooms are not poisonous, and the areas they grow are not harmful to humans (not sure what you are talking about).

>>2379885
Yeah, what?

>>2379747
>>2379905
I stay away from Psilocybe species. I am not into tripping, and the legal risk of producing and selling them is too high. I wouldn't want to risk my credibility as a researcher. I help people identify them, and can give many tips on growing them.

>>2380069
P. cubensis is an easy species, as are some other psilocybin containing species like Panaeolus. I am not sure why you would want to grow them if you don't want to sell or consume them. If you want the novelty of growing mushrooms there are way easier and way prettier species.
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>>2380069
Google "brown rice flour"
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I live in michigan. What edible mushrooms can I pick in the spring and early summer? I haven't found any lists on google.
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>>2380205
http://michiganmushroomhunters.org/Mushrooms/Found%20on%20our%20forays.htm
Here you go.
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>>2380177
I assume the mycophobic poster was referring to toxic heavy metals metabolized by fungi growing in dump sites. I know one spot in the App mountains in particular where it's verboten to forage due to the use of white-rot basidiomycetes to break down PCB's.
(Pic unrelated, just a hericium I plucked off a fallen pine log)
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Look at this beautiful mycelium! This is SRA (Wine caps, Stropharia rugoso-annulata). This is one of the species I recommend beginners get into. The mushrooms are huge, and they grow on everything from cardboard to woodchips/barkmulch to compost... They work indoors and outdoors, and are similar to, but better than, Portobellos.

>>2380332
Great find! We have H. corraloides in my area, I find it way more often than H. erinaceus.

It is possible they were talking about metals. I got in an argument recently about eating morels that had been growing in an area that roundup had been used on.
Glyphosate is an organic compound, and it is very specific to growing plants. If it were concentrated, it would most likely be destroyed instead of accumulated. Not to mention the inconclusiveness around whether or not glyphosate is harmful...
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>>2380332
http://aem.asm.org/content/61/11/3904.short

Is it an active mycoremediation project, or are they just warning not to eat mushrooms in the area?
Either way, this article would suggest that the breakdown products on PCBs are still pretty nasty
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>>2380177
If you don't mind sharing, how does one go about growing a psilocybe species?
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>>2380356
https://www.shroomery.org/10850/My-Cultivation-technique-BRF-honey-creating-your-own-spore-syringes-Building-your-Terrarium-Inoculating-your-jars
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Pretty dumb question but if I wanted to grow mushrooms would I have to worry about the possibility of attracting/contaminating my apartment with insects/bacteria/etc? I love mushrooms but my apartment doesn't have these problems already and I'd love to keep it relatively contamination-free.
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>>2377388
What is the easiest way to grow some mushrooms?
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>>2380485
Your apartment is already contaminated with bacteria. They are literally impossible to get rid of. Did you know that a large percentage of your body mass is literally bacterial cells? You getting bacteria on your mushrooms is a bigger risk than the mushrooms getting bacteria on you...
But to answer your questions: mushrooms can attract fungus gnats, which are similar to fruit flies, but they tend to not be a problem until you are doing large grows, and only in the summer.

>>2380496
see
>>2377450
for edible species.
see
>>2380366
for illegal species
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>>2380800
I know that there's bacteria everywhere--I should've worded that better, sorry. I mostly meant unwanted guests (insects), but thank you for your answer! If I end up growing some I'll make sure it's around fall, then.
Another question, what's the mushroom you've had the most tough growing? Whether it was due the species being frail or just being plain unlucky with it.
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>>2381017
>the most tough
the hardest time*, fuck
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>>2380485
>>2381017
Fungus gnats can be a problem, but are harmless to man.
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>>2381017
Lets see... It is sort of hard to say. I have tried low-tek methods on a ton of different species unsuccessfully, so there is sort of a baseline difficulty of "it wont work with these methods" failure that applies to a lot of them. The saprobic species that no-one has ever grown indoors is Morchella importuna, the black landscape morel, and is the species I am currently aiming a lot of effort towards. Low tek methods are the simple cardboard style operations I was talking about. I like to put a lot of effort into low-tek methodology because if you can pull it off you end up with a method that can be used inside anyones home, with little or no investment. You can do most species if you invest in sterile methods (high-tek), so low-tek is kind of an interesting challenge.
The morels are very tricky. They have a complex requirement of man coinciding environmental/nutritional requirements that makes it much more difficult than other species to pull off. You can get the growing pretty well, but you cannot get them to fruit easily. Pic related is the morel mycelium growing on agar.
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>>2377649
Have you had any luck with morchellas? I've never tried to grow then but would like to try. Any tips?
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>>2381448
I haven't progressed into the fruiting stage yet. I have been doing studies of their growth on agar to try and determine the best way to fruit them.
For tips, look into the Sichaun method, they are claiming 3000kg per acre yields in outdoor growing of M. importuna.
Also read the Ower patent, he successfully grew M. rufobrunnea indoors
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>>2377425
I am moving to Oregon in a few months and I am looking for work in microbiology, any tips?
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>>2381448
Jesus Christ those look tasty as fuck.
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What's a good mushroom for cooking?

I'm not a big fan of eating them, but I've only had button mushrooms to form this opinion, and I'd like to explore them in cooking.
Something that'd be good on a multitude of dishes and I can grow indoors. If it turns out I don't like them I can just grow them for the fun of it.
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>>2381723
I would ask around OSU. What are you focusing on? The most prevalent jobs for a lot of biologists here are agriculture and forestry related. I know microbiologists/mostly mycologists that do grain contamination processing and whatnot. There is probably a place for anyone who can do plant bacterial diseases
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>>2381796
Button mushrooms are worse than essentially every other species of mushroom. They have no flavor, and a meh texture.
Oysters are more meaty and taste like pork, they are my favorite. There is a ton of variety in flavor and texture, so I can't really tell you what is good for you. Figure out what mushrooms are foraged and sold in your area, or mushrooms being grown, try them, and decide for yourself. They are all better than button mushrooms though.
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>>2381705
Thank you myco anon.
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>>2377388
OP are you a professor or something?
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OP why are truffels and morells so expensive/rare/hard to grow?
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>>2381837
Apparently Pearl Oyster and Phoenix Oyster mushrooms are fairly common in Virginia. So I'll go running through the woods and hope to spot some. Normally I spot these large yellow orange ones with rippled edges growing out of dead trees, they're everywhere, but I don't know what they are (or have a picture of them)
They kinda look like these. Except brighter, rounder, and they would grow on standing trees.
>>
>>2381885
Not OP but
>Expensive
Because rare and hard to grow
>Rare
Because hard to grow
>Hard to grow
Because they need specific requirements to grow, and to replicate those things are hard/impossible to do, so they need to be harvested from nature.
>>
>>2378485
You'd need to boil them into tea
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>>2377388
What are the lowest temperatures that psylocybe mushrooms grow at?
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Don't mind me, just frying up some E. abortivum with that hericium. Bit of salt/pepper and butter, and it'll go great on rye toast. Mm mm.
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>>2378463
Chitin cell wall
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>>2381941
0K
>>
Could I get some help IDing this mushroom? I bought it from a market in a mixed bag so it should be fine, but I'm currently on the breed.
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>>2381866
Laughed at the filename

>>2381885
Truffles are mycorrhizal, so to grow them you need both a healthy tree grown from seedling (you can't use any pre-existing tree), and soil conditions and climate necessary for the growth of the truffles. People do grow them, but the labor and time investment is insanely high.

Most morel species are semi-mycorrhizal, and noone has a good understanding of their ecological roles (Blonde morels mostly), fire morels are under really weird environmental conditions due to soil chemistry fluctuations related to the burned areas they inhabit, and that really only leaves the saprobic morels in the black non-fire clade. Even they are hard to grow, making them expensive because they all have to be wild collected.

>>2381892
Perhaps Laetiporus? Pic related.

>>2381941
It depends on the species. All species stop growing at 0 C, but there isn't a cutoff for many species native to any region that experiences frosts/freezes. Most of them just grow slower and slower until they freeze solid, only to resume growing as soon as it warms up at all. The most cold-hardy species I know of people growing is P. cyanescens, it likes cold temps so much it doesn't do well indoors.

>>2382025
Well actually a few fungal subkingdoms/phyla have crystalline cellulose walls. Like I mentioned to the other anon, DNA has been the biggest deciding factor, and previously the definition was based on being saprobic and producing spores.

>>2382060
I am not going to be able to help you much. That is pretty degraded. Was it not labeled? Give me a pic of the underside and I could help more.
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>>2382069
I bought it in a mixed bag, had oyster mushrooms, shiitake and a couple others I couldn't put a name to but had seen in shops before.
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>>2382075
I am going to say shiitake, but I am not confident on that ID. It is awful red, and it doesn't have the usual specks of white on its cap. The white gills would also point to shiitake. Those are all grown not foraged mushrooms so the chance something else got in is close to zero.
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>>2382069
Yeah, those are the ones.
Are they edible?
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>>2382093
They are a choice edible! They are one of my personal favorites. The common name is "Chicken o the Woods" and they have a very different texture than any other mushroom. Similar to fried bacon, they get crispy and stiff when you fry them, not soft and fibrous. Absolutely delicious flavor. Some people report issues when combining them with alcohol, and it is recommended to only collect young soft specimens, as they get tough and bitter with age.
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>>2382359
>Some people report issues when combining them with alcohol

First time hearing about this with regards to L. sulphureus. It's not a coprine species, is it?
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>>2382428
No. Just a random thing some people experience. A significant amount of people run into issues combining morels with alcohol as well.
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>>2382069
I've seen something like that before, but they are more thin and like a lilly pad, same kind of coloring though. With some brown.
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i just got 2 p. cubensis syringes

i have a 24 quart autoclave style pressure cooker and tons of mason jars

any tips for a first timer?
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>>2382624
Rye grain gives people the best results, and you can fruit directly from the jar. That pretty much sums it up. You will have better success if you let the grain soak for a day before you hydrate and autoclave it, that way you are going through a tyndallization process.
Make sure that your fruiting chamber is set up correctly, the perlite tub setups are generally pretty successful as long as your climate isn't insanely dry.
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>>2382644
i live in a humid area
is rye better than brown rice for real?
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>>2382647
BRF is used because it is a convenient method for people who don't have access to a legitimate setup. The perlite/flour cakes tend to have low yields, and if you are taking the time to autoclave something you may as well use a substrate that will give you better yields.
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>>2382694
Excuse me, I meant pressure-cook.
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Whats a safe place to get magic spore prints?
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Can you make vodka with them?
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Have you successfully cloned morels?
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>>2377388
hugh fungus wot?
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>>2382694
thanks for the advice

not that i didn't believe you but i looked into it further and that definitely seems like the best way to go. i was under the mistaken impression that all of the cultivation methods required a pressure cooker
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>>2382900
The best way is to buy spore syringes, or liquid culture (LC). Spore prints open you up to a whole other processing step that can give you contamination. They are sold online in a bunch of places, in all but a few states the spores are completely legal to sell and own. I would go on Shroomery.com to find exact links.

>>2382909
Potentially! The enzymes they produce to break down wood can turn wood into sugars even without the presence of the fungus itself, so they can be used to convert wood or straw to sugar, and then you use yeast to turn the sugars into alcohol.
That is the theory anyways.

>>2382933
Yep. Pic related.

>>2383018
Some species can really only be done that way, but Low-Tek is absolutely a thing!
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>>2377388
Do you grow mushrooms for fun/as a hobbie, or do you also grow them as a food source?
What got you into growing them?
What is, in your opinion, the most run part, ans the most boring part aboit hrowing mushrooms?
>>
>>2377388
>AMA
I'm completely aware that there are psychedelic mushrooms. But for mine and the safety of others. What mushroom in particular would give any effect if eaten
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>>2383373
Clarify. Are you asking which species are psychadelic?

>>2383293
I grow them as an extra food source, the whole converting wood into protein thing is pretty cool. I started foraging for mushrooms, and as soon as I learned you could grow them I was obsessed. It is so cool to be able to go out and find a mushroom, and get it to grow at home. It feels like a game.
The most fun part is either seeing that your mycelium is growing quickly and is healthy, or harvesting actual mushrooms. The most boring part is waiting for visible growth to appear, that and the actual prep that goes into everything.
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>>2383377
How do I take a wild specimen and get it to grow indoors? Provided I have the set up ready for that particular shroom. Do I just rub it in the container?
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>>2383383
Rubbing it in the container would spread contamination everywhere.
With a lot of woodloving species you can grow them on wet cardboard in plastic bags, called "cardboard cloning", and then use the cardboard as inoculant for your substrate.
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>>2383394
So I wrap wet cardboard up near the mushroom in the wild, hope it grows, then put the cardboard in a indoor container?
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>>2377388
How can I tell when my girlfriend is ready to get married?
>>
>>2383406
You harvest a woodloving species (oyster, velvet foot, lions mane) and take it home. Take a small slice of the tissue inside the stem base. Place it in between two pieces of damp cardboard inside a ziploc bag. Then wait. It works really well with Oysters.
This >>2380348 is mycelium from SRA growing using this method.


>>2383429
You have to figure out what marriage means for you, how it is going to change routine and impact your lives. Then try and guess how much of a change that would be for her and whether she would feel comfortable with those lifestyle changes. If you haven't been together for very long, or haven't lived together, don't do it yet. You have to make sure marriage is actually a possibility, and then you should sort of get a feeling for when it might be appropriate.
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>>2383442
Ohhhhh, so kidnap mushroom, cut it open, place the heart in a cardboard sandwich, after it spreads it's white stuff out, put that bit of cardboard into a jar of Rye Grain like>>2382644
and then it will spread and fruit? Do I have to mist the jaw with water and keep it damp?
>>
do you get put on a watchlist or cops show up if you ordered psycadelic spores and equipment online?
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>>2383448
You wouldn't be able to put it in a jar of grain, it would contaminate. Grain can only be exposed to clean cultures. You would want to do this: >>2377450. Replace the grain with colonized cardboard.
Dont forget to kill and eat the mushroom after you have taken the sample as well.

>>2383451
From the people I know who do it, no. People generally get taken down when they run big operations and are selling. It doesn't seem like they care about one or two jars in someones closet.
If you happen to smoke weed though, that can trigger a search of the property, which can turn up your jars, and then you get fucked over pretty hard. Don't do it unless you can guarantee there is no reason cops will come over.
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>>2383470
So, after getting a mycelium to form on the cardboard, just put that in a jar and cover with wood pellets and it will grow?
I'm guesing after the mycelium grows into the actual mushroom I can harvest it and more will grow. Would I need to add more fuel pellets so the fungus will always have food?
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>>2383483
You can usually get one jar or bag to yield two, sometimes three harvests. After that it has eaten all the nutrients available. The next step in the process is using the colonized pellets as inoculant for even more pellets. So you don't add more to the jar, you add the jar to more.
I do recommend doing pellets in a bag rather than a jar, it makes for higher yields because you can fit more in a bag, and jars are a hassle to clean. Jars are generally used for making grain inoculant.
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>>2383504
Got it. I remember watching a shroom how to on youtube once before, and it's possible to split the inoculation between a few bags to increase growth rate, right? Say I had one container of inoculate that has used all of its nutrients, how many bags would you split that into?
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>>2383514
It is directly proportional to the amount. A common spawning rate is 15% by volume. That means you can get about 6 times the volume of your amount of inoculant when you make new bags. Potentially, the amount of mycelium you are growing could increase 6 fold every single time you go through another series.
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>>2383527
Cool, so to play it safe it would be smart to break the initial amount into 4 parts?
Is their anything special I should take into account if I use those long and shallow plastic tubs? Humid, room temp, low air flow, right? Mist holes that are put into the top to allow it to breathe. I'm guessing light doesn't matter much to Oysters.
>Like these plastic tubs
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>>2383548
I don't think those would be good
The mushrooms grow out sideways, don't they?
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>>2383548
>>2383576
Four times would be great, the more inoculant you add, the faster it colonizes and the less chance of contamination. That tub would work for some species like King oysters, or SRA, but oysters do enjoy fruiting from the side of a container. Go for a similar tub that is a bit taller. Don't drill holes in the lid, these tubs don't actually seal airtight, so enough air gets in through the sides. Drill holes in the side and cover them in tape until it is colonized, then you can remove it to create the exit for mushrooms to escape.

Room temp, and cooler is better than warmer, while it is colonizing low airflow is better, when it is fruiting you need to begin managing humidity and airflow. You want it humid, with medium airflow. Not so much where it is drying it out. But Oysters aren't the most sensitive species, so you will likely have success just running everything on a tabletop providing your humidity isn't too low. They tend to grow a bit faster in the dark as well, but need light when they fruit.
>>
Would an enokitake bottle work as a decorative "plant"? They're kind of nice looking, but would they die quick or poop spores out everywhere?
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>>2383733
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>>2383744
They would look more like this grown at room conditions, it is high CO2 that causes them to grow white and thin.
They would crap spores everywhere, and they would be gone within a few days after they sprouted. I would say that is the biggest issue with decorative live mushrooms.
Species like Ganoderma can look pretty, and are perennial, so I think they are the best option.
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A patch of R. mariae has decided that the oak in my front yard would make for a nice snuggle buddy this year. At least they're pretty.
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>>2383958
Pretty! From what I have read they are edible. You could always do the taste-test. It is so interesting to me that the Russula and Lactarius genus have such a convenient rule. As far as I know nothing violates it either.
(Also, it is standard to not abbreviate the genus in a binomial until you have already said it once)
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>>2378299
This is an interesting slant.
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>>2383667
Cool. So when colonizing it should be put in like a cabinet or closet, and when it's fruiting it should be out where it can get some light and airflow. For keeping it humid enough, would a spray bottle spritzing the holes once a day be good, or to much? It would kinda mimic morning dew wouldn't it?
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>>2384063
Yep. Misting is actually the recommended method when you don't have a humidity chamber. Good luck!
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So I'm currently in a conceptualization phase of trying to bring the forest back into the home, so nature gets some more screen time. Let's say that my final goal would be to have forest surface as your table top or counter (encased, so closed off), passively growing, perhaps in need of enriched water once in a while. It would have mosses, insects, plants, fungi, whatever..
Now I'm busy making these small boxes (similar to gardens in a bottle) and in bowls, seeing how passively I can make some sort of ecology as small as possible. It speaks for itself there's also an esthetic side to it. I'd like to incorporate fungi. Do you know of any small colourful ones that thrive in temperate (humid) climate, where the fruiting bodies also don't become too large?
Would I need a piece of bark for them?

Also, what about slime molds? I know they're technically not fungi, but often times you do learn about them, no? If so, how do I catch one?
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>>2384102
First off let me tell you your main controlling variable in those enclosed systems: Light. If the system is even slightly underlit the plant component won't be able to hold up its end and it will crash, letting fungi eat everything.
There are a lot of bark-loving mycenas that work really well in terrariums, in fact I have kept this species: >>2378521 inside jars before and it works out great. The photo makes them look big, but in reality they max out at about 2-3 cm tall. You probably wont be able to find this nice Mycena species though unless you live in the PNW. You are probably going to end up with coprinoid mushrooms in your terrariums anyways, so just go hunting for those.
You can find slime molds by lifting up logs during spring rains, and early fall. The only one you are going to be able to find and catch easily is Physarum polycephalum, a bright mustard yellow slime. I had one in a terrarium for awhile, it was pretty cool. Living under a log, it would crawl out any time I misted the tank and it was dark, but if I turned the light on it would crawl back under in a matter of minutes.
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>>2384118
I would love to have a slimy pet!
About the light, that's not a problem. But high light isn't a problem for a mycelium? Or it depends on the species?
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>>2384122
As long as you have provided a thin soil layer, and added a source of wood (chips will give you the fastest appearance of fungi, a small stick will give you the most long-term) it won't affect it. Light is only an issue when the mycelium is exposed.
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>>2384126
Alright, thanks a lot for the help.
Also, what do you think of bringing nature more into homes, but instead of standalone plants it's ecosystems (forgot that word in my initial post, brainfart I guess), which resemble forests, which don't need to much bother?
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>>2384129
It is a great idea. Not sure about the whole building it into furniture thing, but building an ecosystem is exactly what I do in all of my aquariums and terrariums.
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>>2384138
Dude, think about it, how meta wouldn't it be to eat right above a giant ant colony? But it's completely sealed off and they can't do shit! Of course they have their own food supply..
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>>2384140
Truck on dude, make it happen.
>>
Do I have to worry about spores when growing these indoors? I'd rather not have mushrooms growing on my walls.
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>>2383941
Unrelated but those look really tasty, why do they cultivate the weird albino shrooms if the "wild" variant can be farmed too?
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>>2384255
Nope. If your house was damp enough to fall prey to fungi mold would already be eating it.
Some people have allergies to spores, so you will just have to try it and find out.
People who work in mushroom farms doing harvesting occasionally get something called "mushroom workers lung" which is similar to particulate induced asthma. We are talking about people working in warehouses full of fungi though, where the air is visibly clouded by spores.
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>>2384272
I don't know, it is a Japanese practice to deprive them of air to make them long and white. They do weird stuff sometimes. People do grow them normally though
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>>2384624
that looks neat, you'd think more sci fi movies would take advantage of the hall of albino horse cocks, or mushrooms in general
shame practical effects are a dying art
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is there a more aesthetic bolete?
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>>2384767
They look like burnt marshmallows
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>>2384774
You look like butt marshmallows
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>>2384780
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Would you take a bite, /an/?
>>
>>2377388
what do you think is the cutest mushroom?
>>
any magic mushrooms you can propagate on a log like an oyster mushroom or similar?
>>
>>2384624
i lived in a very old house with very bad plumbing and small yellow mushrooms would grow from the base of the toilet

this was over a decade ago and i don't have any pictures, but any idea what they could be and how/why they would be there? it wasn't even a totally filthy place... just very old and run down like knob and tube style shit you'd turn on the stove with the toaster on and blow the breaker
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>>2384972
The wax seal under the toilet probably cracked and spores did what spores do.
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>>2384972
>small yellow mushrooms would grow from the base of the toilet

Sounds very much like Leucocoprinus birnbaumii. They have a tendency to pop up in weird domestic places like that.
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>>2384969
I'm not OP but it doesn't get much cuter than this little bugger.
>>
>>2384987
how much mana does this restore?
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>>2384987
what about these?
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>>2384993
I've got such a soft spot for mycenas. I see your qt and raise you something out of my pezizales folder.
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>>2384969
Mycenas are pretty cute. I also love to find clusters of young Agaricus xanthodermus, though they are more impressive than cute.

>>2384970
Nope. There are no log-loving species of Psilocybe that I know of. There are ones that can grow solely on woodchips outdoors though, and they are not hard to cultivate. P. cyanescens.

>>2384972
>>2384981
Agreeing with Leucocoprinus birnbaumii.

>>2384990
About 60, with 100 restoring over the next 30 seconds.

>>2385002
Those don't even make me bat an 'Eyelash'
>>
>>2385048
>Scutellinia setosa is even smaller than Scutellinia scutellata, with a maximum width of 3 mm

Jesus, dude, how small do you wanna get before we're just throwing pictures of yeasts at each other
>>
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also to keep the chain of cute mushroom pics going, here's Gymnopilus luteofolius. If a teddy bear was a mushroom...
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>>2385063
Hmmm
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>>2385068
Cute little slimy babies. If a squid was a mushroom...
>>
>>2385102
I still have yet to collect one of those. I wonder how the glutinous veil takes to drying? Does it evaporate? Leave a thin membrane? So many questions.

(Pic is Boletus frostii for those curious.)
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>>2385100
we microscopy now
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>>2385111
The specimen in the photo is pretty young. By the time they are mature the veil has dripped down onto the stem. I don't know if it gets eaten or something, but it usually deteriorates into nothing very quick. I think it could be evaporating to leave a very small and discreet film.

>>2385114
Aaaw sheeit

This is Trichoderma. One of the cardinal pathogens in mushroom growing, and a huge reason we have to use sterile technique.
>>
Is there any specific signs that grass might grow magic mushies (psylocybes)
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>>2385836
seems a lot easier to just get some spores and grow them yourself. Trying to forage for them is just asking to get fucked up by something like pic related if you dont know how to identify mushrooms.
>>
>>2385839
I heard purple spore prints mean they're alright
>>
>>2385130
The only time I ever bust out the microscope is when I'm looking at spores or checking out gill trama. I really wish I my microbio course had covered fungi more. There's some amazing stuff on that front, like temperature dependent dimorphic yeasts. Mycelial growth at room temperature, but assumes a yeast form when at body temperature. The resulting infections aren't pretty.
>>
>>2385842
Is that true? (Forgot the the rest)
>>
>>2385842
You really shouldnt get into the habit of using a single trait, especially one like spore print color, to identify whether a mushroom is safe or not.
>>
>>2385852
Any bad experiences?
>>
>>2385856
Bad experiences with eating something? No.
Bad experiences with not being able to find something? Frequently.
>>
>>2385836
Psilocybe semilanceata, the liberty cap, tends to gravitate towards wetland grasses. Other than that, no, there is no way to tell other than the actual presence of them whether or not they will be there. They are a bit unpredictable.

>>2385842
>>2385852
Listen to this anon. You never want to rely on one trait. There are a number of toxic species that have purple spore prints. And, sometimes it can be difficult to tell whether or not something is "black", "purple-black" or somewhere in between. On top of not relying on one feature, IMO it is bad to try and rely on color as a diagnostic feature since it is so subjective.
For someone who doesn't have experience foraging for mushrooms and properly identifying them, don't start with Psilocybes, they are a difficult and indistinct genus with many toxic lookalikes.

>>2385846
I pretty much use any excuse to bust out my scope, I love it. Got it as a kid from santa, and I've held on to that shit.
Fungal infections are just terrifying. Penetrative necrotic infections paired with low susceptibility to antifungals is not an acceptable combo at all. Apparently many tropical infections are gaining resistance, and moving more and more northward as temperatures increase. Here in Oregon we had a spell of gnarly fungal infections after we logged trees containing dormant fungi... Sounds like shit straight from a sci-fi flick. http://www.livescience.com/9880-deadly-fungus-emerging-oregon-expected-spread.html
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>>2385861
Oh, and I bet you thought you had to be immunocompromised for most non-dermal fungal infections. Guess again, this Cryptococcus strain is infecting healthy individuals which makes it uniquely terrifying. Wonderful!

I have some theories about the human population eventually running into a severely contagious and deadly fungal infection. We are sort of just waiting for a strain to develop the right balance of host toxicity/necrotrophy and contagion...
>>
>>2385863
That would be a good game.....
>>
so if you kill a demon in hell, do they go to double hell? or is it like going negative in old games' hex codes and it wraps around and sends them to heaven?
>>
>>2386410
I'm sorry I had a stroke and this is the wrong tab, please take this as an apology
>>
>>2386410
>>2386411

Actually, each layer of hell works as a cube function. They end up in 8th hell FYI
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>>2385861
>>2385863

Jesus. This should be shown to all the laypeople who are terrified of cordyceps. Put things in perspective, you know? Actual fungal human pathogens are much more terrifying.
>>
>>2386411
Bioluminescent fungi are always appreciated. So pretty.
>>
>>2386453
Seriously. I can't fathom every breath you exhale smelling like moldy meat...
>>
>>2377388
Have you ever grown chicken of the woods?
>>
>>2386660
No, but I know people who have.
It doesn't do well indoors, but you can pull it off. Slow colonizer, and even slower fruiter.
Logs outdoors work a lot better, but also colonize slowly.
>>
>>2386465
Black mold is spook
>>
>>2377388
SHow me yer best mushroom
>>
>AMA
1. Isn't my pic rel the best and the most noble mushroom ever? Isn't finding it in the forest the best thing that can happen to a virgin?
2. Can european mushrooms be found in America?
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>>2387675
Most European species can be found in North America, but they only superficially resemble the European varieties. When you start looking at them on a scope and pulling apart their DNA you find that the continental difference has created divergent populations. We are suffering through some pretty major upheavals of nomenclature while we rename a ton of things we thought were the same as their European counterparts, but are actually different.
(Fomitopsis pinicola is now F. pini-canidensis, Amanita pantherina is now A. ameripantherina, just for a couple examples, and the whole Russula genus is now fucked).
But a quick answer to your question is yes, most species (chanterelles, boletes, etc) can be found here and are virtually identical, at least to your average mushroom hunter.

>>2387630
You mean that I've grown? I would say these >>2377438 guys are the most impressive size-wise. In terms of personal victory, I like pic related as it represents success in using paper towels as a substrate. This was a colonized block of paper towel that I tossed into my terrarium for kicks. Ended up popping out a mushroom which is surprising seeing as it is unsupplemented paper. I think it managed to derive nitrogen by leaching it from soil in the terrarium.
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How do you cultivate lichen?
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>>2387762
With most species you don't. The ones you can; slowly.
From what I understand it is as easy as inoculating a tile surface with propagules (the equivalent of spores or conidia for many lichen), incubating with either sunlight or artificial lighting, and giving it very occasional doses of nutrients. Keep in mind, many species have growth rates of like 2mm/year...
In terms of farming any product they have close to zero efficiency.
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>>2387675
Strobilomyces > Leccinum.
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Does it really taste like pepper? (the peppery bolete)
Never managed to actually find it
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>>2387782
what a patrician. how the hell did you find it?
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>>2387783
Yes. Intensely so. The most spicy mushroom I ever nibbled was Russula fragrantissima. (it has a new name now I can't remember, thanks Europeans)
It takes a few seconds to kick in, but it burns so bad that you wish you hadn't nibbled it. And it is a completely different type of burn than peppers or horseradish
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>>2387784
That particular pic isn't mine, but they're not hard to spot in my area during late summer/early fall. They stand out like neon signs.
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>>2387787
where do you live (name of pic rel suggest it's Poland, if yes - what area?)
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>>2387789
Western NC, Appalachian Mountains. We get mostly S. floccopus (or at least, it was called that. I feel the other anon's pain when it comes to DNA analysis fucking up the nomenclature).
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>>2387792
I read on wikipedia that this kind of mushroom is partially endangered in Poland where I live. I have a habit to just let them live if I don't know them. Anyway, If I had seen one of these babies, I'd surely have remembered it.

I am always affraid of these scumbags pic rel. They're not poisonous but they taste like intense shit. My dad can tell the difference between these and normal muschrooms, but I can't.
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>>2387799
By normal mushrooms I am guessing you mean edible Boletus species. You can tell the difference based on taste (actually a really convenient method for a number of species), and that Tylopilus will have pink pores, where Boletus rex-veris, edulis, will have tan to yellowish to white pores.
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>>2387807
Thanks. I'll try. Yes, I meant edible boletus (sorry for my language)

Do you have many cases in USA where the whole family is poisoned by a mushroom? In Poland it's a fucking phenomenon, especially during summer. People think it's a parasol mushroom, but in reality it's a death cap.
And these fuckers make their children eat these. And children should not eat any mushrooms, right?
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>>2387813
It's mostly destroying angel poisonings around here, at least with regards to the phalloideae. Uninformed people confusing the hemiangiocarpic buttons with puffballs, mistaking the younger buttons for edible Agaricus species... occasionally you get the idiot druggie who poisons himself on Galerina marginata or Conocybe filaris, thinking he'll go out and forage some Psilocybe.
To make things even more fun, most doctors aren't really familiar with mycotoxins in general, so you sometimes see people get released when the amatoxin symptoms subside briefly before they relapse and die.
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>>2387820
You in the PNW?

>>2387813
We have had immigrants come in and eat young Amanitas thinking they were Volvariella (paddy straw mushrooms, popular in asia). We also get occasional poisonings where people eat Amanita smithiana or silvicola thinking it is Matsutake. Other than that just a steady flow of dumbasses eating Galerina, Tubaria, and Conocybe thinking they are Psilocybe.

Story time:
>Catching the bus home, looking out the window
>Be extremely familiar with all the urban mushroom patches near me, what is growing and when etc.
>See homebum looking guy picking mushrooms and putting them in his bag
>Know that there are only Agrocybes and Coprinellus micaceus growing in that particular patch of grass
>Get off at the nearest bus stop and walk over
>He sees me approaching, and starts picking them even faster and shoving them in his mouth
>This degenerate chipmunk is looking at me like I am going to come and take them all
"Dude, you know those aren't magic right?"
-"What?"
"I am a researcher, and I know exactly what you are eating, and it is not Psilocybe"
-"You mean psychadelic, not psilocybe"
>Realize he thought I was saying it wrong
"See how they are melting into ink? That's because they are inky caps."
>Still picking them
-"Wow man, fools gold huh"
>still picking them, obviously thinks I am here to steal his patch
"Wrong season, wrong habitat, and they look nothing alike"
-"Alright dude, whatever"
He then walked off, and I walked home. I think he didn't believe me, because the next day they were all gone. I hope he has fun shitting his brains out from eating raw inky caps... He is pretty lucky though, most other species and he would've poisoned himself. Natural selection I guess.
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>>2387848
Nah, I'm in the eastern US. I was mostly talking about the U.S. in general. As I understand it, C. filaris especially is most common in the PNW.
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>>2381208
Maybe they need something weird to fruit like some kind of pollen or a substance in the soils that they naturally grow in
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>>2387848
>"See how they are melting into ink? That's because they are inky caps."
>>Still picking them

>Eating deliquescing ink caps
oh god imagine the texture
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>>2387855
It is, that's why I was guessing you were here.

>>2387857
I don't think so, but I enjoy the pollen/spring fruiting association you just drew up. I haven't heard of anything so specific inducing fruiting in any species except plant pathogens. By concept, it shouldn't need anything like that, and if it did you would also assume that it was some nutritional component. I guess it is possible, but I would say it is unlikely.

>>2387858
Yeah, the thought makes me gag. I have to imagine he was pretty desperate for a high. He was literally shoving handfuls in his mouth. If they were Psilocybe he would've been so outrageously high.
It is sort of understandable if you mixed P. cyanescens up with Galerina, or Tubaria, they share habitat, size, and color, but c'mon, Micah caps??
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Why do my cultures keep getting infected with mold, is there a method of growing mushrooms that's as simple as taking care of a crop plant?
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>>2387877
What cultures? Are you talking agar, or sawdust blocks?

The simplest methods of mushroom growing are seasonal outdoor grows. Inoculating logs is easy, and requires no maintenance. Setting up woodchip beds is another option. As long as you are buying your own inoculant and not making it it is arguably easier than plants.
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I'm very jelly OP. I'm an aspiring mycologist but I don't have the means to grow them at home.

I am planning on setting up an area to grow some mushrooms like Reishi and Turkey Tail soon, to sell to a couple interested local herbal shops.
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>>2387929
Ever do any foraging, anon?
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>>2387932

Ye, although my usual foraging spots are bare this year for some reason. I used to find lots of chanterelles, oysters, and my favorite: Austroboletus betula.

This year all I'm finding are destroying angels and turkey tail.
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>>2387929
Make space! I am a big proponent of low-tek indoor growing methods that require little or no investment.
The Reishi are a great idea, there are a number of people in my area who make bank selling them to herbal shops and distributors. Tincture sells really well to Asian shops as well
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>>2387943

Any idea on how much to charge for Reishi? I'll be setting up a stand as there's no herbal shops in this area.
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What does an agar wedge taste like?
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>>2388012
It is based on demand. I am actually not sure on the prices in my area
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>>2388018
PDA itself tastes like nothing. Maybe a tiny bit salty. Different types of agar are going to taste different. I have only sampled PDA.
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What does an agar wedge taste like?
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how much longer until the giant honey mushroom grows large enough to attain sentience and attempts to consume north america?
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>>2377388

How do you end up becoming a "mycologist" formally?
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I don't visit /an/ much, but this is a quality thread. I'll have to come around more often. Also, this post has inspired me: >>2384102
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>>2388151
Undergrad degree in a related scientific field. Graduate degree in mycology from a university that offers it. Same as any other science.

That's if you want to do it in a professional capacity, though. There's tons of amateur (in the sense that they don't get paid to study it, not as a measure of skill) mycologists out there. OP does it in an actual research capacity, if I recall. I'm a biochemist who picked up the hobby because mycotoxins are really cool from a molecular standpoint. It takes all kinds.
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>>2388174

Thank you
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What would your recommend for large scale outdoor growing?
Is large scale growing in a field a thing I can do?
I suppose it would only take wood chip beds and lots of space, right?
Perhaps something to keep the animals away from them?
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>>2377388
Mycology is extremely fascinating to me. I was hoping to pursue education to become a mycologist, but had no idea where to start.

How/where were you educated? (You seem very knowledgeable in this field, makes me jealous haha)

What jobs are available for mycologists aside from cultivation?
My worry was if I would be able to get a job that would allow me to live financially comfortable? Thanks in advance, I've never had a chance to ask someone with these experiences.
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>>2388148

soon hopefully
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>>2388174

What's your favorite mycotoxin?

Amatoxins are dank.
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>>2388483
Well, my favorite isn't technically a toxin at all. It's the antigen found in Paxillus involutus, which causes acute hemolytic anemia. The mechanism is pretty neat. The antigens in the mushroom trigger the production of antibodies in the blood. Eating the mushroom again after those antibodies are produced causes antigen-antibody complexes to form and your body essentially has an autoimmune reaction against your own red blood cells. The whole process functions more like a severe food allergy than an actual toxin. I think it's pretty crazy that you can't really estimate how many people it's killed, since P. involutus was considered a decent edible for such a long time.

Amanitin is still a classic, though.
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As a Mycologist, do you think it would be possible to grow a Cordyceps fungus in a sealed terrarium with insects? Would it be practical?
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>>2388151
>>2388174
OP here, what he said is the process. I am actually not a formal researcher, I am still an undergrad. (Only a year away from my degree) Part of why I admire mycology so much is that you can truly find untapped subjects and experimental theories that noone has thought of before. And on top of that, the investment is relatively low until you get into chemical and genetic analysis. Like he said, amateur mycologists can actually garner authority and valid research through extreme amounts of study. I think a big part of that is because many universities only offer pretty generalized, or agriculture focused mycology teaching. That story is a bit different if you have a lab full of cool folks though. Mycology is pretty interesting in those aspects, being a very young field aside from agricultural mycology.
I am sure >>2388174 anon feels the pain researchers face in chemistry, I can't imagine finding something truly original in that field is an easy feat. Although biochem may be different in that context.


>>2388244
There are woodchip beds, and straw beds.
Woodchip beds are way more predictable, and the species that grow on them often give very nice yields. Straw/compost beds are way less predictable due to competition from wild species but offer a larger selection of possible species to grow. And yeah, they take up space.
Some people use netting for animals, but the biggest issue people run into is slugs and woodlice.

Chips:
Stropharia rugoso-annulata
Agrocybe praecox (some varieties)
Some varieties of Pleurotus
Psilocybe cyanescens (obviously not a food species)
Other than those major species, most any rhizomorphic woodlover will do well if the climate permits. I would say SRA is the best option.

Straw/compost:
Coprinus comatus
Lepista (Clitocybe) nuda
Volvariella sp. (Probably not functional in most climates)
Chlorophyllum sp. (loves lawn clippings)
and many others. More species work in this setting than in woodchip beds.
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>>2388303
The degree in mycology is largely just a formal thing. It gets you access to research positions, and gives you some immediate authority. The mycology taught in most settings prior to graduation is often either extremely generalized, or very specified to agricultural mycology relating to crop pests.
That said, I am working my way towards a degree from OSU, the only uni that offers a degree in mycology in my area, and it is mostly focused on crop pests, agriculture being a big thing in my area. Because of that, most of the research positions are directly related to crop pests, with some niche stuff going on in soil science and carbon cycling. A lot of people are making money by using expensive equipment to constantly shuffle around our existing genuses and species with genetic analysis. Everyone is always saying "The money is in the DNA." Ultimately, mycology is mostly underrepresented in most universities and curriculums. The big drive for becoming educated in your field comes from independent consultation of research papers, independent research, or collaborations with mycologists who can fund their own projects. (A lot have had success manning companies that market fungi and derived products, and using the proceeds for research. This is the case where I work). It is very hands-on and informal.

Jobs include research positions, agricultural jobs, forestry jobs, cultivation including products (tinctures, extracts, medicinals), classes. Just some that come to mind. In many areas there is zero competition for cultivation, and that paired with low investment is what makes it very viable for a lot of regions. Most of the people I know are getting forestry jobs or research positions.

>>2388483
>>2388557
We have the same favorite! I was getting ready to go into the whole schpeil. I think it is pretty sad that the characteristics of toxicity weren't really established until a renowned mycologist died eating it...
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>>2388581
Definitely. More or less what you can do is expose the pupae (or specific host for your species, each species has a specific target) to spores and incubate them. I am not clear on the details, but there will be some climate/lighting control that goes into it. Cordyceps is evil stuff, and it does what it does well. The big hurdle people had to overcome was getting it growing indoors on a substrate it would never touch in nature, so you should have luck with the native substrate. For awhile people were trying everything, growing them on cricket meal, farming bugs for them to infect, none with high yields. Eventually someone found a really really good strain and got it eating literal rice...
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>>2388618
Cool, I'm might be able to have my own horror show display of Cordyceps devoured insects clinging to plants. Thank alot.
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>>2377388
Hey OP. I have a ton of questions I'd like to ask you but I'll start with a few for now...

I recently purchased a liquid culture of reishi from a not-so-reputable source online. I inoculated two jars of sterilized sawdust made from hardwood fuel pellets. It has been about 2 weeks without any visible signs of mycelium. Could the culture be bad? Is it possible for any additives to be in the pellets that hinder growth? I checked the manufacturer and they don't specify.
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>>2377388
What got you into mycology?

How often do you consume 'shrooms'?
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>>2387848
Maybe he was a bum who was just hungry?
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>>2388629
A common occurrence is "hardwood" fuel pellets actually having some fraction of pine added, which severely inhibits most species. Double check that. At this point you are doing a troubleshoot. Ask questions about every aspect of the grow.
-LC or spore solution
-temps?
-lighting?
-By sterilize I assume you mean PC. Is it possible your jars contaminate?
-Is it just HWFP? Or did you add a supplement?

I would guess that your inoculant is bad. It could either have died in shipping if it was LC, or it could've been spores, which do not germinate properly in reishi. It could've been contaminated as well.

>>2388651
See >>2383377

>>2378339
I just noticed that I missed this.
I don't personally have much experience with yeasts, but I may be able to help out. I know that brewers use a number of interesting methods. The best way is to go about swabbing yeast habitats with sterile cotton swabs, and isolating the yeasts on agar. I have even heard of people capturing fruit flies and letting them walk on agar to deposit the yeast living on their feet! The easier at-home method is to actually introduce a cocktail of miscellaneous bullshit... You want to start many many small batches of low-gravity wort. Do like 10 quarts in separate jars. Leave some of them open-air on a windy day, rinse local fruits in some, let fruit flies infest some (I have successfully captured fruit-fly yeast by letting them die inside sugar solutions). You generally just want to expose them to your environment and specifically yeast habitats. (wild fruit, sugar-producing trees, aphids, fruitflies, and the air).
Once you have your jars festering away (expect mold, and weird nasty smells in the majority) you need to start smelling them for "yeasty" alcoholic smells, and monitor for classic yeast growth such as foam caps, carbonation, etc. Capturing wild yeast without agar is just a hit-miss kind of thing. Your best bets are fruit and fruitflies, and just keep trying until you get a good jar.
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>>2388666
Got lucky with those trips. >>2378339 ferment the devil beer
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Reposting from /out/

I'm pretty sure this is hen of the woods, but I want to confirm. I'm still waiting on a spore print.

Young flesh is soft, fibrous when pulled apart. Doesn't ooze or bruise but it is slowly turning brown after picking. Old flesh is woody.
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>>2388695
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>>2388695
Perhaps, are they all sharing a central base?
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>>2388720

Mostly. There are a couple clusters, each with a central base.
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>>2388728
Honestly I am not extremely familiar with this species. From looking over my books, and comparing to photos it appears to be a proper ID. What habitat is it growing in?
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Can I grow one of those weird looking stink horns indoors? This is a super interesting thread, thanks. I think I'm going to actually try growing some regular mushrooms now.

>>2381837
I never liked eating mushrooms, but this has convinced me to try some other than button mushrooms.
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>>2388666
Thanks for the response. Yes I PC-ed the substrate. It was a LC to straight fuel pellets. Temperatures were around 72 and the jars were set in the dark.

I emailed the company that makes the pellets to confirm if it's a blend of hardwood and pine. We'll see. I did grow out some oysters on a blend of WBS and pellets and that worked out fine.

What would you say is the best source of spores/LC/spawn available?
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>>2388666
Instead of buying sawdust, couldn't I just make it myself? I live in the woods, and have mostly pine, oak, and hickory around me. And Chinese privet. Fuck Chinese privet. (Southeast US)
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>>2388751

Appears to be growing from the dirt, although it could be coming from a root from the nearby tree. Very shady and very moist.
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Pic related is a really good example of the staining pattern in Agaricus xanthodermus. Turns yellow when scratched, and slowly fades to brown.

>>2388760
Sounds like the inoculum was bad.
Fungi perfecti, Paul Stamets' company, is a really great source of high-quality spawn and cultures. They have a good selection for a lot of climates/substrates, and have done a lot of work to make sure they are sending out really well-bred strains.
They have grain spawn, sawdust spawn, and "pure cultures" which I assume are either LC or agar slants. Also, go on facebook and join "Mushroom Growing". If you make a post about pretty much any species someone can hook you up. It is a great group in general for anyone interested in cultivation, they don't focus on Psilocybes and the community is very good about answering questions and displaying their operations/projects/experiments.

>>2388756
From what I am reading, the genus Clathrus contains a lot of saprobic species, so potentially you could grow them. Noone I know has tried, so you may run into unexpected difficulties. Definitely try other species, anyone who has used button mushrooms to decide if they like them all or not is seriously missing out. There are so any other textures and flavors out there. Laetiporus gets an exact bacon texture when it fries in oil.

>>2388763
It would be way more energy investment, and is not worth it. You would need an entire devoted machine to turn wood into sawdust, and using a chainsaw or other saw would take way too much time. The two best sources of sawdust are HWFP and fungi.com sells alder sawdust in big 7lb bags for pretty cheap.
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>>2388784
What type of trees are nearby? Which one is closest?
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>>2388609
Asking about farming anon here.
Profit wise which of those mushrooms would be best to mass produce? I'm talking a large field worth. I might have the space, and if it's as easy as inoculation and changing out the wood chips every few harvest, I'd be willing to put in the time getting a large area set for mushroom production
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>>2377388
How often do you take psilocybin?
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>>2388789

Closest is actually a trumpet vine that has grown into a small tree and a camellia tree.

Spore print is done, same spore color as hen of the woods.

I'm pretty sure it's hen of the woods, so I'll eat a bit. I'm 100% sure it isn't poisonous.
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>>2388813
>>2388789

Just had a bite. Maitake!

For some reason growing under my rain barrel spout.
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>>2388798
Well, outdoor mushroom growing isn't the standard method of producing them for sale, due to insects, climate fluctuations, etc. It just doesn't work out very well. And, fresh mushrooms only last about one or two weeks, and don't ship all that well, so aside from the one season they are fruiting, you are going to have to shut everything down sales wise. I would say that SRA is the best mass-production species for the outdoors, and is also the fastest.
If you actually wanted to make more than small seasonal profit you would need to invest in a few sheds for controlled indoor grows.

>>2388807
I haven't. I am way too much of a nervous person, and I know too many people that end up fried. At some point I will probably try it, but I am not in a place where I want to risk it right now.

>>2388819
Good find! You should try cardboard culture with some of it. Just take a sample of tissue from the stem, and sandwhich it inside damp boiled cardboard inside a ziploc bag. Wait and profit!
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>>2388845
Controlled as in temp, air flow, humidity?
Not just some ply wood sheds?
I'm guessing only a small plot would be best for local sales.
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>>2388847
Small plots tend to give pretty good yields, but it will scale up pretty fast. I would say the minimum functional plot is 2x5 ft, anything past that is just going to be more and more efficient.
Plywood sheds sealed with plastic and moderately insulated would be sufficient, and yes, climate control includes temp, humidity, and fresh air inflow as well as lighting.
Without climate control you are at the mercy of the seasons.
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>>2377388
Have you ever ID'd a generic-looking Russula with any degree of confidence?
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>>2388873
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>>2388869
I might just make multiple small sheds then, and grow multiple types for local stores so they can sell the stuff fresh.
Rather than grow a huge amount of land out doors, small shacks of shrooms would probably fair better.
A few batteries and solar panels can keep fans going and heaters during the cold.
Plus a sprinkler on a timer.
Sounds good to you?
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>>2388845

Never done cardboard before, does it need more nutrients or anything? I've got it in the bag with the cardboard
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>>2388879
>Generic looking
You mean all of them? But seriously, the only ones I feel confident on are the distinct ones. Russula fragrantissima is easy because of smell, color, and striated cap. Also the burning taste.
Russula xerampalina based on color, and shrimp odor when old (but I know a bunch of species are like this, so ultimately I don't feel that confident)
Generally, no, I don't feel comfortable with the Russula genus. Thankfully I never have to do anything with them.

>>2388886
Sounds very good! I like the whole self-contained idea. I do think you would have a better time marketing a variety of species grown indoors year-round, and it also lets you branch into medicinals. Outdoor could be supplementary seasonal income, or just for personal use. Like I mentioned, bugs and uncontrolled weather tend to make them unmarketable, but not inedible.

>>2388948
Nope! That is the cool thing, and also the advantage, to cardboard.
Cardboard is pretty much completely cellulose/lignin, with virtually zero nitrogen. Because of this, molds tend to grow very slowly if at all, and bacteria have no chance at all. This non-nutritive environment selects for species with strong cellulase enzymes, meaning any woodloving species. Once the cardboard is colonized it effectively gives you a mycelium sample that can be stored almost indefinitely (in the fridge or dried). You can then use it to inoculate other substrates like HWFP. Because the cardboard method isn't sterile, it does not work well for inoculating nutrient rich (heavily supplemented) substrates. This photo >>2380348 is a cardboard culture of SRA.
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Looks like the thread will run out of space soon. This was one of the few threads I have made on this board, and I'm very surprised it was this popular. For those of you who are going to be starting ongoing projects, should I make threads occasionally to stay in touch and maintain interest?
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>>2388997
what's the best fungi species for the terrarium?

in terms of maintenance and thriving abilities

and appearance
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>>2388998
I haven't tried many species like that, so I can't exactly give experience-based recommendations. However, I know that Coprinoid species will often pop up and propagate completely on their own in terrariums. Other than that, who can say what species will and won't work. I have had success taking sticks with Mycenas growing on them and getting them to grow at home. I think that would be the easiest method, is to take advantage of something already growing on a small stick. Mycenas also come in a ton of pretty colors. The main issue with both inky caps and Mycenas is that they are fragile, and last only for short periods of time. If you wanted to devote the entire tank to mushrooms, you can grow a lot more species by growing them normally but using the terrarium as a container. SRA works well like that.
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Can you identify what is growing on my shoe?
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How to become one with the shrooms when you die? I'm thinking that maybe you can encourage a shroombro to feed on your carcass or possibly get cremated and sprinkle the ashes at them.
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>>2388997
Sure, a thread every now and then would be nice. Don't try and turn it into a general or anything, but I've definitely got an interest in it now.
>>
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>>2389078
Nope. You should probably clean that up though, before your air quality goes to hell even more.
Molds are a hassle to identify without getting them onto agar and under a microscope.

>>2389083
There is some lady out there starting a whole facebook campaign about this exact thing. She is using edible woodloving mushrooms though, in a sort of burial suit thing coated in spores. IMO it wont work. Why use woodloving species to break down a body when there are already a ton of species adapted specifically for breaking down corpses...

>>2389163
Sounds good.
>>
mushroom man, what are some good edible mushrooms to look out for in southern poland? I'll be visiting my cousin soon, and want to go mushroom hunting in honor of my grandpa who loved that shit
>>
>>2388997
please keep the threads coming, ive been waiting for a thread like this. one of the other anons is a personal friend of mine. since discovering the benefits of medicinals, all we want do is populate the world personally, and publically with as much fungi as possible. i love it!!
>>
>>2389163
>>2389214
>>2389285

We tried a general a while back and it kinda died. I think the best way we could do it is sort of a "Questions that dont deserve their own thread" thread. Most good conversations about mushrooms come from people curious about it. A mushroom general would be too directionless.
>>
>>2389300
Probably the best thing to do is keep making threads as these are about to die after reaching autosage, and if one dies without autosaging, we go a few days or a week until a new one is made. That way we make them as long as interest is up.
>>
>>2377388
hey op, you crazy diamond, my grandmother and i have been connecting recently over the wild mushroom picking she would partake in as a child in pre WWII, poland, her face lights up in a way ive never seen before, on almost anyone about anything, anyway. im asking her as many questions as i can about it,... one thing she said they would identify mushrooms they weren't sure of by boiling them with an onion, if the onion darkened in color it would be poisonous, if not they are good to go, she also said if you boil and drain enough times you could still eat a poisonous one. have you heard anything like this before?
>>
>>2377388

Is it a danger to breathe in the spores? If so, how do you prevent it? What happens if you do?
>>
>>2389216
Where are you located? If you look up "X town/region mycological society" you can probably find their website, and if they are any good they will have listings of what they find on forays.

>>2389285
>>2389300
>>2389329
I think I will give it a couple weeks and make another thread, see if it gets the same popularity, and if it does I'll consider making it regular.
>>
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>>2389412
Alright, so folk tales like that tend to be specific to one or two species from a native area, and come from people who learned through tradition rather than science. There is never any trick, any one method, that will reveal the difference between edible or not. And with some species, "Edible" is a very debatable term. A really common thing you see is that impoverished populations will start eating any mushroom they possibly can, and that includes going through any means necessary to prepare poisonous species.

The boil and toss method she is describing actually does work for a number of species, but only very specific ones, and there are absolutely species where the toxin isn't water-soluble, or is deadly at low doses. The boil method only works for heat-sensitive, or very hydrophilic toxins. A good example is Amanita muscaria, the fly agaric. All the toxic compounds in that species are very water soluble, so boiling and tossing the water twice is enough to make them perfectly safe to eat, with no side effects.
Another example is verpas, and morels. (And to some, namely those impoverished populations, gyromitra species). The compound gyromitrin is found in Morchella (morels) Verpa (thimble caps, peckerheads, falsies) and in large amounts in the genus Gyromitra. It is extremely toxic, harming the liver and kidneys, and accumulating in fat deposits. When heated, the compound converts to MMH, which is also toxic, but happens to be volatile. The poison literally "boils out" of the mushrooms. In morels and verpas this boil-off tends to be negligible, but there have been cases of people preparing Gyromitra, and the person over the stove has died because they inhaled a giant dose of the toxin while everything was cooking. Small doses are also left in the mushroom even after cooking, and gyromitrin has been shown to accumulate, meaning you can get sudden and severe toxicity with continued consumption.
>>
>>2389416
For small scale grows, or with low-spore species, no. Spores are only an issue when you scale up to huge warehouse grows, and with heavy spore producers like oysters. It is recommended you wear a respirator when harvesting said mushrooms, because there can literally be pounds of spores suspended in the air. Providing you don't have an allergy, the issues you face are purely those of inhaling a lot of particulate. There is something called "Mushroom workers lung" which is just a version of this https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypersensitivity_pneumonitis.
Anyone growing a few blocks in their house need not worry.
>>
>>2377388
Have you considered starting a blog regarding your research? Like detailing your experiments? I think it would be fun to follow. People typically log their research anyway so you might was well make it public and if other mycologists find it they can give tips or learn from your research
>>
>>2389494
I always record my projects, I haven't considered publicizing them though... Perhaps when I have a bigger portfolio.
>>
How do you get paid doing that job?
Do you grow rare shrooms and sell then to pill companies while doing twisted incest like experiments in your basement?
>>
>>2389559
The mushroom farming is by the hour payment. The research is currently building a portfolio in the hopes I can get a research scholarship to get a free ride. So potentially the research is paying for the rest of my education.
We grow a lot of medicinals, mainly turkey tail and reishi, sell kits, teach classes, and wholesale fungal produce.
The research is completely independent.
>>
>>2378529
Yeah, you know, i've always found mushrooms fascinating, and i have this impending idea of taking a mushroom trip.
But shit like this is the thing that yells at me NO WAI MOFO!
>>
>>2389570
When people are talking about psychedelic mushrooms, they're mostly referring to psilocybin containing species, which is something completely different than amanita muscaria. Whether that makes it any better for you, I dunno.
>>
>>2389570
Yeah, the muscaria is a separate thing from "magic" mushrooms. Psilocybe species that contain psilocybin are what you are thinking of.
>>
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Went on a hike. Let's see if /an/ can help with some IDs with no microscopy work.
>>
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>>2390089
Amanita citrinum? East coast, near oak. No annulus. Gills free.
>>
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Jelly fungus. On fallen tree limb. Cute.
>>
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no volva, no annulus. No live trees nearby, thinking saprobe. Stipe fibrous.
>>
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>>2390100
>>
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Weird one. Bolete was growing out of the side of the pine tree. Peeled the bark away and the hyphae were going directly into the tree, not into the root system. Parasitic?
>>
What fungus makes the best pet?
>>
I wouldn't mind a mushroom general, it would keep people from making new "what mushroom is this" or "is this edible?" Threads all the time. And it gives me something to read.
>>
>>2390129
Get yourself a slime mold.
>>2390130
Maybe this weekend I'll see about formatting an OP to use for it. Could be fun.
>>
those are beautiful
>>
>>2390100
>>2390101
>>2390089
>>2390094
Definitely both Amanita species.

>>2390103
Not sure on this bolete.

Could I get your region?

>>2390129
>>2390206
While Slime molds are not technically fungi, I agree that they make great pets. Look around after rainy days during spring and summer, mainly under logs or in leaf litter. If you find one just bring home part of the log, or the litter itself.
>>
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Hey is this magic? Found it growing from a dead tree its like 20 degrees celsius
>>
>>2390654
If you have to ask its better to assume it is not. You don't want to end up like the schmuck in >>2387848's story shitting his brains out, or dead.
>>
>>2390654
Looks like Coprinus atramentarius. It contains the mycotoxin coprine, which will make you feel really sick if you drink any alcohol while it's in your system.

Also, it looks like it's deliquescing, so it'd be really slimy and unpleasant to eat anyways.
>>
>>2390654
looks magic to me dude you should eat it and trip balls lmao don't believe these fake scienticians that just want to keep you ignirant of the truth dude
>>
>>2390730
>Makes you sick if you drink alcohol
Wait, why hasn't someone made a pill with that then? It could help alcoholics like that one medicine that makes you sick when you shoot up heroin.
>>
>>2390880
The medicine you mention does exist, it's called Antabuse. There are others too that help by preventing the cravings and managing the side effects of addiction:

http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2016/09/26/495491533/medications-can-help-people-stop-abusing-alcohol-but-many-dont-know

The article says it best - the vast majority of people don't know these medicines exist unfortunately, which is doing a disservice to the addicts who would be greatly helped by them.
>>
>>2390888
Man, the surgeon general should run alcoholic ads that feature that shit.
All this anti smoking bullshit drowns out alcholics, not to mention all anti drinking things are anti drunk driver.
"We don't care about your liver, but don't drive when you drink."
"We don't actually care that you smoke, we just don't want you to smoke near us."
"Don't do drugs, we don't get money for those."

It's pretty dumb all around now that I think about it.
>>
>>2382069
>Well actually a few fungal subkingdoms/phyla have crystalline cellulose walls.
Which ones?
>>
>>2388151
>How do you end up becoming a "mycologist" formally?
I did a BSc, MSc, and PhD. My BSc honors thesis was mycology-related, which led to me pursuing grad degrees in mycology.

It annoys me a little when mushroom enthusiasts or some amateurs call themselves "mycologists". If you have a nice garden you aren't necessarily a botanist and if you like birds you aren't necessarily an ornithologist. That said, there are many amateur mycologists who are informally trained that make great scientific contributions, i.e. they publish in peer-reviewed journals and are experts.

There are also people who are essentially molecular biologists or geneticists who call themselves mycologists because the DNA they work with is fungal. My degrees are all in biology but my theses and expertise are in mycology, so I consider myself a mycologist. But you don't get a degree saying "Mycologist" or anything.

So it's a loose sort of definition. I guess anyone can say they are a mycologist, amateur or professional.
>>
>>2391070
Some chytrids, and all Oomycetes (Although I just checked and it looks like Oomycetes just got removed from their fungi classification)

>>2390654
We would need something for scale, and better photos of the whole mushroom (base included), but I am thinking either Coprinellus micaeceus or Coprinopsis atrementaria.
>>
>>2391080
>It annoys me a little when mushroom enthusiasts or some amateurs call themselves "mycologists"

Well, if you want to get into the semantics of it, "mycology" is just the study of fungi, which hobbyists and academics alike engage in to some degree. The word's definition never really addresses the depth of the research one engages in. But it's not just mycology that has this problem. Take a look at all the lab tech pipette monkeys with four year degrees who describe themselves as chemists, biologists, etc.
>>
>>2391090
Oomycetes haven't been considered fungi for some time. Same with Hyphochytrids. As far as I know, no true fungi have cellulose in their cell walls.
>>
>>2391118
I think you're right
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