What are the earliest human records/stories of the concept of hell? (Or Sheol, Hades, Tartarus, Gehenna etc)
Not a fan of the Bible. They seem as if they are imperfectly copied from more ancient stories.
were demons the progenitors of the human race?
or are humans sons of god's madness?
The oldest recorded religion is Sumerian religion. Its where the Babylonians, Assyrians, Egyptians etc took their ideas from and built off.
You should look up their underworld concept.
I am a religion student. The oldest records of "hell" comes from Egyptian and or Greek mythology, with a hint of paganism. The monotheistic religions I'll talk about (Christianity, Judaism and Islam) have very similar ideologies of hell. It's ruled by the angel who disagreed with god, hades, satan, shaitan, iblis all possessed free will which caused them to fall and rule the underworld. All of which include torment and despair and sadness.
You are correct. Satan being the ruler of hell is a misconception. Hell is a place where God is in control, and satan (along with demons or other unload Angels) is sent to hell to suffer.