There's a Musil quote from Die Mann ohne Eigenschaften that says "Before the law all citizens were equal, but not all were just citizens", Kafka and Musil regularly corresponded by mail and used to read each others work.
As any Kafka story there's a pretty limitless number of reads: Identity (Metropolitan Judaism set against the more Orthodox tradition that could be seen in the door keeper "long sharp nose and Tartar beard") but identity is usually much too simple and I tend to stay away from it, its as remedial as analysis gets, imo.
Bureaucracy- Usually the go-to critical read for anything Kafka does, as this story is found in the Trial (near the end where the priest tells him this parable acting as if its scripture). The idea of limitless doors you have to go through.
There's a solipsistic quality to it, with the door only being open to him.
The quality of what the Law is, being this tangible object that everyone should be able to reach, but the people its meant to be for can't. (Seeing as though Kafka Worked at a Law firm, this isn't a bad read biographically-wise, and obviously pops up throughout his work, The Trial/In the Penal Colony.)
There's of course the nature of obligation and ultimate failure, that its seen as though the Doorkeeper is trying to keep him out, but really his job was just to watch the door that was meant for the character, he couldn't let him in but the man could go in if he desired. The doorkeeper appears to be more loyal and following obligation than the narrative might make it seem, whereas the man from the country is the one who shirked his duties and had no trust in the system. Whether you want an existential Sisyphean read out of that, free will debate, or the idea of ultimate failure, thats on you. These are only a few of the usual first analyses of the story.
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