Wow, you totally just btfo of everybody everywhere ever
no but seriously, 1/10
A simile expresses a likeness or a similarity of relations between two objects different in kind. A simile is generally introduced by like as so or thus. "The ballad of Chevy Chase stirs the heart like the sound of a trumpet." "That man is as cunning as a fox." "Like as a father pitieth his children so the Lord pitieth them that fear him."
A metaphor is a compressed simile. The objects are declared to be not similar but identical. "That shrewd man is a fox." "That boy is a snail." "He was a lion in the fight." "The wish is father to the thought."
Every metaphor can be expanded into a full simile. Thus the metaphor, "The boat flies through the water," may expanded into, "As a bird flies in the air so the boat in the water," or the relation between the bird and the air (flying) is the same as the relation between the boat and water. The three terms which we are supposed to know are bird, flying, boat - the unknown term being the motion the boat, which by means of the three known terms itself becomes known.
it's really that a simile, metaphor, metonymy, etc. are all just different forms of the same function. That is, to draw two or more ideas together to a level of equivalence.
A simile is a weak form, and it's more used for "getting an idea" of something. "The river was as think as a stickbug." Less about making the river look like a stickbug, and more about conveying its size in a compressed manner. It reveals the river through an external modifier. "stickbug" might as well be an advanced form of adjective.
Metaphor is a bit different in form. Take shakespeare's common use of "tooth of time". This isn't just a way of saying "time that is rough like a tooth", though it implies it -- it's a way of tying two disparate ideas together. "tooth" connotes roughness, wildness, primality. This applies it to the idea of Time. It modifies both into a single idea, it doesn't modify an original idea weakly like a simile.
Metonymy is just often a metaphor with an exceptional associative leap. "tooth of time" could count as one, technically, though I wouldn't call it an exceptionally strong one. From Hart Crane's poem, "At Melville's Tomb", perhaps the famous example is "the calyx of death's bounty" -- which is used to evoke (1) the ideas of the calyx (one of the reproductive parts of a flower), and the sexual undertone this gives (2) the shape of the calyx, in context, as a whirlpool, imbuing the idea of a whirlpool with those of a flower -- death with life, etc. (3) flower as an associative of "life", bounty as that of "treasure" or rarity, death modifying the two into the image of the whirlpool that taketh and giveth.
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