Why do exquisite sounds, such as 'vile',
often refer to negative concepts in English?
I don't think this is the case.
On the one hand, you have words like 'vile', which have this quasi-onomatopoeic quality of sounding as exquisitely (as you put it) vile as their meaning, but on the other hand, there are plenty of words like (off the top of my head): grace, elegance, ethereal etc, which sound really fucking nice.
I think there's some sort of law in psychology which says we're more perceptive to things that appear bad than things that appear good.