>>573257 in many places lords could kill serfs with impunity
the main difference between European serfs and American/Roman slaves was the lack of a huge slave trade with slaves constantly being brought in, serfs were a static population who performed the same tasks on the land year after year
>>573934 I imagine they'd been conditioned from birth to find it normative. Maybe they wouldn't think more of it than it being their lot in life. Like a serf who is resigned to till the earth for the rest of his life with no hope of upward mobility.
Basicly all cultures had slaves at some point of history. Hunter gatherers are maybe a bit different, but already in a simple hortocultural farm work or sheep herding it is handy to have some war captives from the neighbouring tribe to do the rough work.
>>578127 I'd argue that serfdom isn't really the same as slavery Serfs were tied to the land but not considered property in the same sense a slave was, they could not be bought or sold, they had legal protections, and could bring grievances before a manorial court.
But as for >>571314 It largely tapered off during the early middle ages outside of Byzantine. It still existed but was rare and largely replaced by serfdom and no where near the ubiquitary you see later in the new world
Around the year 0 slavery was practiced pretty much in every European tribe/nation.
Early medieval Christians pushed quite hard to abolish slavery and succeeded. By the year 1000 most of Europe was relatively slave free except for some border areas in the Southern European countries. After the discovery of the New World the Pope said fuck it to 700 years of church work and declared slavery okay again. Protestant countries naturally saw this as a papal deviation from the scripture or whatnot and still banned slavery in the continental part of their empire.
>>571314 >Was slavery something common in european countries before the discovery of the New World? It was common in the classical period. Slavery was the natural thing to do with the captives from the incessant internecine warfare between tribes/city states. Most of them would just have been treated like a lower class of servant. As trading expanded industrial-scale slavery started to take hold - where before a slave would have been part of a household, as the network of trade routes around the mediterranean developed you could get whole mines run with nothing but slaves.
Also, the wars of conquest of the Roman Empire produced huge numbers of captives, and slavery reached its peak in the late-Republican and early-Imperial period. The patchwork of peasant farmers were bought out by large landowners who turned their farms into huge industrial enterprises where almost all the labour was slaves. As the Roman Empire's wars of conquest slowed down, slavery slowed down with it. In much the same way that the subject peoples of the Empire slowly got citizenship, so slaves slowly got more rights. By the mid-Imperial period, ~150AD, it was no longer legal to arbitrarily kill slaves, and slaves that were abandoned due to age or illness were considered to have been freed - this points to a general increase in slave rights. From an economic standpoint, it simply became cheaper for many landowners to employ day-labourers (who were often so dirt poor that they were little better than slaves anyway) who would work seasonally rather than feed slaves all year round. Slavery still remained common throughout the Empire, though.
When the Dark Ages hit, trade routes collapsed and it was no longer possible to have large slave markets with labour transported from all across Europe. As well as that, since it was no longer possible to transport farm produce over great distances to market, industrial-scale farming waned. Essentially slaves got more expensive just as demand for them decreased.
There was evidently still some slave trading - one dark age pope is reported to have sent a mission to Christianise England upon seeing Saxon slave boys for sale in Rome - but as an institution slavery more or less collapsed. At this point, slaves were once again being produced mostly from petty internecine warfare. Which meant that slaves were mostly from nearby, which meant that they were mostly Christian. And the Church frowned upon enslaving other Christians. As Europe became more Christianised and places like England were converted by the later dark ages, there became fewer and fewer sources of pagan captives. Which isn't to say that slavery stopped entirely, but the combination of the economic factors and church disapproval brought it more or less to a bare minimum.
One later example of slavery on a large scale in Europe were the Vikings. Their raids were often carried out with a view to obtaining slaves, and as traders they bought and sold slaves from Ireland to the Ukraine. But as anti-Viking defences improved and Scandanavia became steadily more Christianised, these too dropped off.
By the time of the discovery of the New World, slavery was very uncommon in Europe. The trade networks still weren't there to support it, and in any case feudalism and serfdom meant that instead of having to capture people, you captured land and the labour came with it. I don't know for certain but I would guess that the Italian city-states probably still traded slaves around with Mediterranean with the Arabs, who still had plenty of slavery. But in most of Europe slavery was mostly non-existent.
>>581383 >rape is a social construct by the liberals. Indeed, but the social construction of sexuality against will by african slaves was one of abhorrence and later (with the progenity, or progenitus in the case of male rape) tolerance.
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