Urbanization, integration into the Mediterranean economy and politics, the political unification of everything south of the Solway Firth.
Economic exploitation - British grain used to feed the Rhine armies for example, tin. Men were forced into the Roman army, and the Britons for the first time were exposed to the (relatively) centralised administration of the empire, which brought with it a (relatively) oppressive tax burden.
Arguably, they (specifically, Tacitus' Agricola and their failure to conquer Scotland) were responsible for the creation of the idea of Scotland as a wild, barren, barbarous land which played into stereotypes and ideas of Gaelic speaking Scots amongst English speaking Scots, and Scots more generally amongst Englishmen which arguably continues down to this day, for instance the reflection out of hand that Scotland could have supported life in the pre-glacial period, or that a hunter gatherer lifeway in Scotland would have been difficult due to this mistaken idea that Scotland was poor resource wise.
>>522568 >political unification of everything south of the Solway Firth
Well, that only really lasted as long as the Romans were there.
Cultural unification, maybe, but then the in coming of the Saxons kinda renders that moot.
Which reminds me of another theory, actually, that the first Saxons to come to England came as mercenaries in Roman pay, and after the Roman administration of Britain broke down, these Saxons settled and then sent for their families.
Remember, the Saxon migration was pretty large, it wasn't piecemeal. Back then, you really wouldn't have done that unless you were incredibly desperate or had some guarantee of what was on the other side.
>>522589 >Arguably, they (specifically, Tacitus' Agricola and their failure to conquer Scotland) were responsible for the creation of the idea of Scotland as a wild, barren, barbarous land Or, it's the fact that Scotland is wild, barren and barbarous
>>522182 Facilitated the spread of Christianity to the native Celts, especially of Wales and Scotland, and their Romanized administrators, and eventually the conversion of the Anglo-Saxons but that was quite a while after the Roman empire fell.
>>522182 Rome employed Germanic mercenaries during its campaigns in Britain and these Germans became familiar with the territory and the native Celts themselves. Some brought this knowledge back to their homeland and others settled permanently on the island.
These mercenaries laid the foundation for the conquest of Britain by the Germanic tribes during the Völkerwanderung.
Well, obviously only while the Romans were there. It is certain that the first 'Saxons' were stationed as foederati - the Notitia Dignitatum lists Saxon units, and Gildas' 'proud tyrant' (which could as easily be a pun on the name Magnus Maximus as on the title-name Vortigern) settled 'Saxons' in return for 'annonae' and 'epimenia', i.e. as foederati.
We have no idea how large the Saxon migration was - the only hint that it may have been rather large is that English replaced Brythonic and there are few Welsh loanwords in Old English.
In fact, all the evidence we have suggests that the Saxon migrations were very much a piecemeal affair - there certainly was no unified völkerwanderung that led to political conquest. The patchwork quilt of polities that comes into the light of history c.600 in both the 'Anglo-Saxon' and Welsh worlds suggests otherwise.
You must also remember that 'Saxons' had been raiding Britain for nearly two centuries c.400, and had not wintered on the island in that time. This actually suggests that sailing to Britain was not an arduous undertaking, but rather something that could be accomplished quickly and with ease. But I agree that Saxons already in Britain would have had some part to play in persuading new migrants to come and till the land and enter Romano-British service.
You are a moron - the PAS data Caitlin Green uses long pre-dates the Roman conquest. By the time Britain entered the empire in 43 AD, Africa, Gaul and Spain belonged to Rome - of course there would be no 'unique' material culture from those regions to arrive while they were under Roman sway.
If anything Rome intensified the trading relationship Britain had with these regions. Think of the tombstone of Barrates, a Palmyran trader and his British wife Regina - their tombstones are to be found along Hadrian's wall, but are carved with Palmyrene inscriptions, testament to a far-flung diaspora that now existed in Britain thanks to the incentive of trading with a new Roman outpost.
>>522182 Completely changed agriculture, built a ton of canals and joined up rivers into a sizable network allowing you to get a boat from London to Oxford and up to York, turned iron smelting and charcoal burning into centralised industries, built churches and temples, laid loads of roads many of which are now our 'A' roads and on it goes.
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