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Pre-Roman Europe thread
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You are currently reading a thread in /his/ - History & Humanities

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File: holy.jpg (12 KB, 236x314) Image search: [iqdb] [SauceNao] [Google]
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I'll start with this amazing monument from Sardinia (1000 bc):

The Nuraghic well of Santa Cristina, Sardinia has been regarded as a ritual monument built to receive moonlight on its watermirror at the time of the meridian passage of the moon when it reaches its highest point in the sky during and around the majornorthern lunistice. In this paper we investigate the precision that could have been achieved and conclude that the well couldindeed have served as an instrument for measuring the lunar declination during half of the draconic cycle of 18.61 years.

Found about about the Vinča culture from /his/.


They had proto-writing


And the earlist known copper metallurgy

File: Nebra_Scheibe.jpg (202 KB, 915x900) Image search: [iqdb] [SauceNao] [Google]
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>The Nebra sky disk features the oldest concrete depiction of the https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nebra_sky_diskcosmos worldwide
File: nuraghe.jpg (148 KB, 960x642) Image search: [iqdb] [SauceNao] [Google]
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Nuraghe of Barumini, UNESCO site (1400 bc)
ANything in Belgium and surroundings?
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Inner courtyard
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cantabrian mountains

>cradle of europe
>never conquered
File: Orkney_Skara_Brae.jpg (164 KB, 800x533) Image search: [iqdb] [SauceNao] [Google]
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>Skara Brae is a stone-built Neolithic settlement, located on the Bay of Skaill on the west coast of Mainland, the largest island in the Orkney archipelago of Scotland. It consists of eight clustered houses, and was occupied from roughly 3180 BC–2500 BC. Europe's most complete Neolithic village, Skara Brae gained UNESCO World Heritage Site status as one of four sites making up "The Heart of Neolithic Orkney."a Older than Stonehenge and the Great Pyramids, it has been called the "Scottish Pompeii" because of its excellent preservation.
>On the southeast, in the North Caucasus Mountains, spectacularly ostentatious chiefs suddenly appeared among what had been very ordinary small-scale farmers. They displayed gold-covered clothing, gold and silver staffs, and great quantities of bronze weapons obtained from what must have seemed beyond the rim of the earth—in fact, from the newly formed cities of Middle Uruk Mesopotamia, through Anatolian middlemen. The first contact between southern urban civilizations and the people of the steppe margins occurred in about 3700–3500 BCE. It caused a social and political transformation that was expressed archaeologically as the Maikop culture of the North Caucasus piedmont. Maikop was the filter through which southern innovations—including possibly wagons—first entered the steppes. Sheep bred to grow long wool might have passed from north to south in return, a little considered possibility. The Maikop chiefs used a tomb type that looked like an elaborated copy of the Suvorovo-Novodanilovka kurgan graves of the steppes, and some of them seem to have moved north into the steppes. A few Maikop traders might have lived inside steppe settlements on the lower Don River. But, oddly, very little southern wealth was shared with the steppe clans. The gold, turquoise, and carnelian stayed in the North Caucasus. Maikop people might have driven the first wagons into the Eurasian steppes, and they certainly introduced new metal alloys that made a more sophisticated metallurgy possible.
Nuraghe Santu Antine (1600 bc)


The locals called the grand nuraghe simply Sa Domu de su Re, the house of the king.
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>The Maikop chieftan was buried wearing Mesopotamian symbols of power—the lion paired with the bull—although he probably never saw a lion. Lion bones are not found in the North Caucasus. His tunic had sixty-eight golden lions and nineteen golden bulls applied to its surface. Lion and bull figures were prominent in the iconography of Uruk Mesopotamia, Hacinebi, and Arslantepe. Around his neck and shoulders were 60 beads of turquoise, 1,272 beads of carnelian, and 122 golden beads. Under his skull was a diadem with five golden rosettes of five petals each on a band of gold pierced at the ends. The rosettes on the Maikop diadem had no local prototypes or parallels but closely resemble the eight-petaled rosette seen in Uruk art. The turquoise almost certainly came from northeastern Iran near Nishapur or from the Amu Darya near the trade settlement of Sarazm in modern Tajikistan, two regions famous in antiquity for their turquoise. The red carnelian came from western Pakistan and the lapis lazuli from eastern Afghanistan. Because of the absence of cemeteries in Uruk Mesopotamia, we do not know much about the decorations worn there. The abundant personal ornaments at Maikop, many of them traded up the Euphrates through eastern Anatolia, probably were not made just for the barbarians. They provide an eye-opening glimpse of the kinds of styles that must have been seen in the streets and temples of Uruk.
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Pic related is a corridor inside the structure.
From both towers a corridor leads to the northern tower. The two large corridors are intersected by the two corridors that depart from the courtyard, which makes the entire plan of the building a kind of labyrinth. In the outer wall of the corridors there are loopholes, even though the term loophole does not mean these were used as such, they could have had the function of letting in air and some light. Just before opening to the northern tower both corridors are connected by a lateral corridor intersected by a third opening to the northern tower. In the northern tower there is a third well, covered with stones. The well is positioned beneath the level of the floor. The northern tower also has a doorway that leads outside, currently barred.
The upper floor of the bastions can only be reached through the staircases which can be entered from the courtyard. Large parts of the upper storey of the bastions have disappeared in the course of the centuries because the stones have been reused as building material. It gives the ramparts the appearance of a medieval castle when walking around the upper corridors. The plan of the upper floor is similar to that of the ground floor; two lateral corridors connect the front towers to the northern tower. The three towers are not accessible but there are other chambers built into the massive walls that are still visible. The view of the environment, the village below and the courtyard is extraordinary.
Nuraghe Arrubiu (1450 bc):

The Nuraghe Arrubiu is one of the largest of the nuraghi in Sardinia. It is located in Orroli, in province of Cagliari. Its name means "red Nuraghe" in the Sardinian language, which derives from the basalt stones of which is built.
the main tower originally reached a height of between 25 and 30 metres, making it the tallest stone building in bronze age Europe.
The main structure, which is made up of five towers, is protected by two secondary walls, making a total of 21 towers. The area covered by the complex is ca. 3000 square metres.
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